The Mangrove finch is one of the world’s rarest birds with an estimated population of around 100 individuals. Before 2009, there were three mangrove forests which provided a habitat for this bird; now there are only two. Like many of the Darwin finches, the Mangrove is currently threatened by introduced predators such as rats, cats and a fly whose larvae feed on finch nestlings. Furthermore, like all localized populations, the species is also threatened by potential habitat loss, due to the possibility of devastating tidal waves and volcanic eruptions
The mangrove finch was formerly found on Fernandina and Isabela Islands. However populations have been so seriously reduced they are now only found in two tiny areas on Isabela. It could be the first registered extinction of a bird in Galapagos.